Fortress User Guide

Fortress Overview

Link to section 'Fortress Overview' of 'Fortress Overview' Fortress Overview

The Fortress system is a large, long-term, multi-tiered file caching and storage system utilizing both online disk and robotic tape drives.

Fortress uses an IBM T3584 robotic tape library with a capacity of over 10 PB.
Storage Subsystem Current Capacity Hardware
Disk Cache Over 200 TB 3 IBM DS3512 Storage arrays
Long-Term Storage Over 10 PB LTO-6 Robotic Tape Library

All files stored on Fortress appear in at least two separate storage devices:

  • One copy is permanently on tape.
  • Recently used or files smaller than 100MB have their primary copy stored on a conventional spinning disk storage array (disk cache). Disk cache provides a rapid restore time.

Both primary and secondary copies of larger files reside on separate tape cartridges in the robotic tape library. After a period of inactivity, HPSS will migrate files from disk cache to tape.

Fortress writes two copies of every file either to two tapes, or to disk and a tape, to protect against medium errors. Unfortunately, Fortress does not automatically switch to the alternate copy when it has trouble accessing the primary. If it seems to be taking an extraordinary amount of time to retrieve a file (hours), please either email rcac-help@purdue.edu. We can then investigate why it is taking so long. If it is an error on the primary copy, we will instruct Fortress to switch to the alternate copy as the primary and recreate a new alternate copy.

Link to section 'Fortress Storage Quota' of 'Fortress Overview' Fortress Storage Quota

There is currently no quota on Fortress disk use. Fortress users will receive a monthly email report showing your current Fortress usage.

Files belonging to deleted accounts will also be retained, but inaccessible except by special request after the accounts have been terminated. The files will be kept for no more than ten years or the usability of the media on which they are stored, whichever comes first.

Link to section 'Fortress File Recovery' of 'Fortress Overview' Fortress File Recovery

Data on Fortress is not backed up elsewhere in a traditional sense. New and modified files in the disk cache are migrated to tape within 30 minutes, and Fortress maintains two copies of every file on different media to protect against media failures, but there is no backup protecting against accidental deletions.

If you remove or overwrite a file on Fortress, it is gone. You cannot request to have it retrieved.

Link to section 'Fortress Regular Maintenance' of 'Fortress Overview' Fortress Regular Maintenance

Regular planned maintenance on Fortress is scheduled for the first Wednesday of every month, 8:00am to 12:00pm.

Accounts on Fortress

Link to section 'Obtaining an Account' of 'Accounts on Fortress' Obtaining an Account

All Purdue faculty, staff, and students participating in the Community Cluster program have access to Fortress along with their cluster nodes and scratch space.

Research groups are assigned a group data storage space within Fortress with each Data Depot group space. Faculty should request a Data Depot trial to create a shared Fortress space for their research group.

ITaP research computing resources are not intended to store data protected by Federal privacy and security laws (e.g., HIPAA, ITAR, classified, etc.). It is the responsibility of the faculty partner to ensure that no protected data is stored on the systems.
  • Particularly in the case of group storage, please keep in mind that such spaces are, by design, accessible by others and should not be used to store private information such as grades, login credentials, or personal data.

Fortress sets no limits on the amount or number of files that you may store. However, there are several restrictions on the nature of files you may store:

  • Many small files: Fortress is a tape archive and works best with a few, large files. Large sets of small files should be compressed into archives with utilities such as htar. Other technical limitations are detailed on the Fortress FAQs.
  • Backing up individual or departmental computers. Fortress is intended to be a research data store and not a personal or enterprise backup solution.

Additionally, while Fortress access is included with Research Computing services, storing more than 1 PB of data may incur a cost recovery charge.

Link to section 'Outside Collaborators' of 'Accounts on Fortress' Outside Collaborators

Your Departmental Business Office can submit a Request for Privileges (R4P) to provide access to collaborators outside Purdue, including recent graduates.

Link to section 'Login & Keytabs' of 'Accounts on Fortress' Login & Keytabs

It is not possible to login directly to Fortress via SSH or SCP. You may access your files there efficiently using HSI, HTAR, or SFTP. Windows Network Drive/SMB access is possible, though with significant performance loss.

A Kerberos keytab file is required to log into Fortress via HSI or HTAR. However, all ITaP research systems may access Fortress without any Kerberos keytab preparation. If for some reason you lose your keytab, you may easily regenerate one on any ITaP research system by running the command fortresskey.

However, to access Fortress from a personal or departmental computer, you will need to first copy your Kerberos keytab file to the computer you wish to use. This keytab can be found in your research home directory, within the hidden subdirectory named ".private" as the file "hpss.keytab" (.private/hpss.keytab). This keytab will allow you to access HPSS services without needing to type a password and will remain valid for 90 days. Your keytab on ITaP research systems will automatically be regenerated after this time, and you will need to re-copy the new keytab file to any other computers you use to directly access Fortress then.

If you do not have an account on any ITaP research systems other than Fortress, you will need to generate a keytab file using the web interface:

Link to section 'File Storage and Transfer for Fortress' of 'File Storage and Transfer' File Storage and Transfer for Fortress

Your home directory on Fortress is the default directory that in which your archive files are stored.

On Fortress, your home directory will appear as /home/myusername, but this is not the same directory as your home directory on any other ITaP system. Your home directory on Fortress is your long-term storage directory for all ITaP systems.

The following link will take you to more information about transferring files in and out of Fortress.

Link to section 'Sharing Files from Fortress' of 'Sharing' Sharing Files from Fortress

Fortress supports several methods for file sharing. Use the links below to learn more about these methods.

Link to section 'Sharing Data with Globus' of 'Globus' Sharing Data with Globus

Data on any Research Computing resource can be shared with other users within Purdue or with collaborators at other institutions. Globus allows convenient sharing of data with outside collaborators. Data can be shared with collaborators' personal computers or directly with many other computing resources at other institutions.

To share files, login to https://transfer.rcac.purdue.edu, navigate to the endpoint (collection) of your choice, and follow instructions as described in Globus documentation on how to share data:

File Transfer

Fortress supports several methods for file transfer. Use the links below to learn more about these methods.

Fortress does not support SCP or SSH.

FTP / SFTP

ITaP does not support FTP because it does not allow for secure transmission of data. Use SFTP instead, as described below.

SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) is a reliable way of transferring files between two machines. SFTP is available as a protocol choice in some graphical file transfer programs and also as a command-line program on most Linux, Unix, and Mac OS X systems. SFTP has more features than SCP and allows for other operations on remote files, remote directory listing, and resuming interrupted transfers. Command-line SFTP cannot recursively copy directory contents; to do so, try using a graphical SFTP client.

Note: to access Fortress through SFTP, you must be on a Purdue campus network or connected through VPN.

To transfer files to or from Fortress, your client should connect to the server name 'sftp.fortress.rcac.purdue.edu'.

Command-line usage:

$ sftp -B buffersize myusername@sftp.fortress.rcac.purdue.edu

      (to the Fortress system from a local computer)
sftp> put sourcefile somedir/destinationfile
sftp> put -P sourcefile somedir/

      (from the Fortress system to a local computer)
sftp> get sourcefile somedir/destinationfile
sftp> get -P sourcefile somedir/

sftp> exit
  • -B: optional, specify buffer size for transfer; larger may increase speed, but costs memory
  • -P: optional, preserve file attributes and permissions

Linux / Solaris / AIX / HP-UX / Unix:

  • The "sftp" command-line program should already be installed.

Microsoft Windows:

  • MobaXterm
    Free, full-featured, graphical Windows SSH, SCP, and SFTP client.

Mac OS X:

  • The "sftp" command-line program should already be installed. You may start a local terminal window from "Applications->Utilities".
  • Cyberduck is a full-featured and free graphical SFTP and SCP client.

Globus

Globus, previously known as Globus Online, is a powerful and easy to use file transfer service for transferring files virtually anywhere. It works within ITaP's various research storage systems; it connects between ITaP and remote research sites running Globus; and it connects research systems to personal systems. You may use Globus to connect to your home, scratch, and Fortress storage directories. Since Globus is web-based, it works on any operating system that is connected to the internet. The Globus Personal client is available on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. It is primarily used as a graphical means of transfer but it can also be used over the command line.

Link to section 'Globus Web:' of 'Globus' Globus Web:

  • Navigate to http://transfer.rcac.purdue.edu
  • Click "Proceed" to log in with your Purdue Career Account.
  • On your first login it will ask to make a connection to a Globus account. If you already have one - sign in to associate with your Career Account. Otherwise, click the link to create a new account.
  • Now you are at the main screen. Click "File Transfer" which will bring you to a two-endpoint interface.
  • You will need to select one endpoint on one side as the source, and a second endpoint on the other as the destination. This can be one of several Purdue endpoints or another University or your personal computer (see Personal Client section below).

The ITaP Research Computing endpoints are as follows. A search for "Purdue" will give you several suggested results you can choose from, or you can give a more specific search.

  • Research Data Depot: "Purdue Research Computing - Data Depot", a search for "Depot" should provide appropriate matches to choose from.
  • Fortress: "Purdue Fortress HPPS Archive", a search for "Fortress" should provide appropriate matches to choose from.

From here, select a file or folder in either side of the two-pane window, and then use the arrows in the top-middle of the interface to instruct Globus to move files from one side to the other. You can transfer files in either direction. You will receive an email once the transfer is completed.

Link to section 'Globus Personal Client setup:' of 'Globus' Globus Personal Client setup:

Globus Connect Personal is a small software tool you can install to make your own computer a Globus endpoint on its own. It is useful if you need to transfer files via Globus to and from your computer directly.

  • On the endpoint page from earlier, click "Get Globus Connect Personal" or download a version for your operating system it from here: Globus Connect Personal
  • Name this particular personal system and follow the setup prompts to create your Globus Connect Personal endpoint.
  • Your personal system is now available as an endpoint within the Globus transfer interface.

Link to section 'Globus Command Line:' of 'Globus' Globus Command Line:

Globus supports command line interface, allowing advanced automation of your transfers.

To use the recommended standalone Globus CLI application (the globus command):

Link to section 'Sharing Data with Outside Collaborators' of 'Globus' Sharing Data with Outside Collaborators

Globus allows convenient sharing of data with outside collaborators. Data can be shared with collaborators' personal computers or directly with many other computing resources at other intstitutions. See the Globus documentation on how to share data:

For links to more information, please see Globus Support page.

HSI

HSI, the Hierarchical Storage Interface, is the preferred method of transferring files to and from Fortress. HSI is designed to be a friendly interface for users of the High Performance Storage System (HPSS). It provides a familiar Unix-style environment for working within HPSS while automatically taking advantage of high-speed, parallel file transfers without requiring any special user knowledge.

HSI is provided on all ITaP research systems as the command hsi. HSI is also available for download for many operating systems.

Interactive usage:

$ hsi

*************************************************************************
*                    Purdue University
*                  High Performance Storage System (HPSS)
*************************************************************************
* This is the Purdue Data Archive, Fortress.  For further information
* see http://www.rcac.purdue.edu/storage/fortress/
*
*   If you are having problems with HPSS, please call IT/Operational
*   Services at 49-44000 or send E-mail to rcac-help@purdue.edu.
*
*************************************************************************
Username: myusername  UID: 12345  Acct: 12345(12345) Copies: 1 Firewall: off [hsi.3.5.8 Wed Sep 21 17:31:14 EDT 2011]

[Fortress HSI]/home/myusername->put data1.fits
put  'test' : '/home/myusername/test' ( 1024000000 bytes, 250138.1 KBS (cos=11))

[Fortress HSI]/home/myusername->lcd /tmp

[Fortress HSI]/home/myusername->get data1.fits
get  '/tmp/data1.fits' : '/home/myusername/data1.fits' (2011/10/04 16:28:50 1024000000 bytes, 325844.9 KBS )

[Fortress HSI]/home/myusername->quit

Batch transfer file:

put data1.fits
put data2.fits
put data3.fits
put data4.fits
put data5.fits
put data6.fits
put data7.fits
put data8.fits
put data9.fits

Batch usage:

$ hsi < my_batch_transfer_file
*************************************************************************
*                    Purdue University
*                  High Performance Storage System (HPSS)
*************************************************************************
* This is the Purdue Data Archive, Fortress.  For further information
* see http://www.rcac.purdue.edu/storage/fortress/
*
*   If you are having problems with HPSS, please call IT/Operational
*   Services at 49-44000 or send E-mail to rcac-help@purdue.edu.
*
*************************************************************************
Username: myusername  UID: 12345  Acct: 12345(12345) Copies: 1 Firewall: off [hsi.3.5.8 Wed Sep 21 17:31:14 EDT 2011]
put  'data1.fits' : '/home/myusername/data1.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 250200.7 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data2.fits' : '/home/myusername/data2.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 258893.4 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data3.fits' : '/home/myusername/data3.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 222819.7 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data4.fits' : '/home/myusername/data4.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 224311.9 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data5.fits' : '/home/myusername/data5.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 323707.3 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data6.fits' : '/home/myusername/data6.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 320322.9 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data7.fits' : '/home/myusername/data7.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 253192.6 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data8.fits' : '/home/myusername/data8.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 253056.2 KBS (cos=11))
put  'data9.fits' : '/home/myusername/data9.fits' ( 1024000000 bytes, 323218.9 KBS (cos=11))
EOF detected on TTY - ending HSI session

For more information about HSI:

HTAR

HTAR (short for "HPSS TAR") is a utility program that writes TAR-compatible archive files directly onto Fortress, without having to first create a local file. Its command line was originally based on tar, with a number of extensions added to provide extra features.

HTAR is provided on all ITaP Research Computing systems as the command htar. HTAR is also available for download for many operating systems.

Link to section 'Usage:' of 'HTAR' Usage:

Create a tar archive on Fortress named data.tar including all files with the extension ".fits":

$ htar -cvf data.tar *.fits
HTAR: a   data1.fits
HTAR: a   data2.fits
HTAR: a   data3.fits
HTAR: a   data4.fits
HTAR: a   data5.fits
HTAR: a   /tmp/HTAR_CF_CHK_17953_1317760775
HTAR Create complete for data.tar. 5,120,006,144 bytes written for 5 member files, max threads: 3 Transfer time: 16.457 seconds (311.121 MB/s)
HTAR: HTAR SUCCESSFUL

Unpack a tar archive on Fortress named data.tar into a scratch directory for use in a batch job:

$ cd $RCAC_SCRATCH/job_dir
$ htar -xvf data.tar
HTAR: x data1.fits, 1024000000 bytes, 2000001 media blocks
HTAR: x data2.fits, 1024000000 bytes, 2000001 media blocks
HTAR: x data3.fits, 1024000000 bytes, 2000001 media blocks
HTAR: x data4.fits, 1024000000 bytes, 2000001 media blocks
HTAR: x data5.fits, 1024000000 bytes, 2000001 media blocks
HTAR: Extract complete for data.tar, 5 files. total bytes read: 5,120,004,608 in 18.841 seconds (271.749 MB/s )
HTAR: HTAR SUCCESSFUL

Look at the contents of the data.tar HTAR archive on Fortress:

$ htar -tvf data.tar
HTAR: -rw-r--r--  myusername/pucc 1024000000 2011-10-04 16:30  data1.fits
HTAR: -rw-r--r--  myusername/pucc 1024000000 2011-10-04 16:35  data2.fits
HTAR: -rw-r--r--  myusername/pucc 1024000000 2011-10-04 16:35  data3.fits
HTAR: -rw-r--r--  myusername/pucc 1024000000 2011-10-04 16:35  data4.fits
HTAR: -rw-r--r--  myusername/pucc 1024000000 2011-10-04 16:35  data5.fits
HTAR: -rw-------  myusername/pucc        256 2011-10-04 16:39  /tmp/HTAR_CF_CHK_17953_1317760775
HTAR: Listing complete for data.tar, 6 files 6 total objects
HTAR: HTAR SUCCESSFUL

Unpack a single file, "data5.fits", from the tar archive on Fortress named data.tar into a scratch directory.:

$ htar -xvf data.tar data5.fits
HTAR: x data5.fits, 1024000000 bytes, 2000001 media blocks
HTAR: Extract complete for data.tar, 1 files. total bytes read: 1,024,000,512 in 3.642 seconds (281.166 MB/s )
HTAR: HTAR SUCCESSFUL

Link to section 'HTAR Archive Verification' of 'HTAR' HTAR Archive Verification

HTAR allows different types of content verification while creating archives. Users can ask HTAR to verify the contents of an archive during (or after) creation using the '-Hverify' switch. The syntax of this option is:

$ htar -Hverify=option[,option...] ... other arguments ... 
where option can be any of the following:
Option Explanation
info Compares tar header info with the corresponding values in the index.
crc Enables CRC checking of archive files for which a CRC was generated when the file is added to the archive.
compare Enables a byte-by-byte comparison of archive member files and their local file counterparts.
nocrc Disables CRC checking of archive files.
nocompare Disables a byte-by-byte comparison of archive member files and their local file counterparts.

Users can use a comma-separated list of options shown above, or a numeric value, or the wildcard all to specify the degree of verification. The numeric values for Hverify can be interpreted as follows:

0: Enables "info" verification.
1: Enables level 0 + "crc" verification.
2: Enables level 1 + "compare" verification.
all: Enables all comparison options.

An example to verify an archive during creation using checksums (crc):

htar -Hverify=1 -cvf abc.tar ./abc

An example to verify a previously created archive using checksums (crc):

htar -Hverify=1 -Kvf abc.tar

Please note that the time for verifying an archive increases as you increase the verification level. Carefully choose the option that suits your dataset best.

For details please see the HTAR Man Page.

For more information about HTAR:

Frequently Asked Questions

Some common questions, errors, and problems are categorized below. Click the Expand Topics link in the upper right to see all entries at once. You can also use the search box above to search the user guide for any issues you are seeing.

Link to section 'About Fortress' of 'About Fortress' About Fortress

Can you remove me from the Fortress mailing list?

Your subscription in the Fortress mailing list is tied to your account on Fortress. If you are no longer using your account on Fortress, your account can be deleted from the My Accounts page. Hover over the resource you wish to remove yourself from and click the red 'X' button. Your account and mailinglist subscription will be removed overnight. Be sure to make a copy of any data you wish to keep first.

Do I need to do anything to my firewall to access Fortress?

Yes, any machines using HSI or HTAR must have all firewalls (local and departmental) configured to allow open access from the following IP addresses:

128.211.138.40
128.211.138.41
128.211.138.42
128.211.138.43
128.211.138.44
128.211.138.45
128.211.138.46
128.211.138.47
128.211.138.48

Firewall issues may manifest with error messages like "put: Error -50 on transfer." If you are unsure of how to modify your firewall settings, please consult with your department's IT support or the documentation for your operating system. Access to Fortress is restricted to on-campus networks. If you need to directly access Fortress from off-campus, please use the Purdue VPN service before connecting.

Can I download HSI or HTAR binaries for my OS platform?

Yes, visit the Downloads page to download HSI or HTAR packages for your operating system.

Note: If your username on your desktop does not match your career account username, HSI and HTAR require configuration to connect using your career account username:

  • For HSI, use the -l careeraccount option on the hsi command line.
  • For HTAR, set the HPSS_PRINCIPAL environment variable to your career account username:
    bash: export HPSS_PRINCIPAL=careeraccount
    csh/tcsh: setenv HPSS_PRINCIPAL=careeraccount

Can I set up a shared space for my research group to share data?

Research groups are assigned a group data storage space within Fortress with each Data Depot group space. Faculty should request a Data Depot trial to create a shared Fortress space for their research group.

ITaP research resources are not intended to store data protected by Federal privacy and security laws (e.g., HIPAA, ITAR, classified, etc.). It is the responsibility of the faculty partner to ensure that no protected data is stored on the systems.

Please keep in mind that such spaces are, by design, accessible by others and should not be used to store private information such as grades, login credentials, or personal data. Contact us at rcac-help@purdue.edu to create a group space for your group.

What limitiations does Fortress have?

Fortress has a few limitations that you should keep in mind:

  • Fortress does not support direct FTP or SCP transfers. SFTP connections are supported.
  • Fortress does not support Unicode filenames. All filenames must contain only ASCII characters.
  • Fortress does not support sparse files.
  • Fortress is a tape archive. While it can handle use case of "multitude of small files", performance may be severely decreased (compared to a much preferred case of "fewer files of much larger size"). If you need to store a large number of small files, we strongly recommend that you bundle them up first (with zip, tar, htar, etc) before placing resulting archive into Fortress. Note: a "small file" on Fortress scale is typically considered something under 30-50MB per file.
  • HTAR has an individual file size limit of 64GB. If any files you are trying to archive with HTAR are greater than 64GB, then HTAR will immediately fail. This does not limit the number of files in the archive or the total overall size of the archive. To get around this limitation, try using the htar_large command. It is slower than using HTAR but it will work around the 64GB file size limit.

Link to section 'Data' of 'Data' Data

What is the best way to access my data?

HSI and HTAR: HSI provides a FTP-style interface taking advantage of the power of HPSS without requiring any special user knowledge. HTAR is a utility to aggregate a set of files into a single tar archive directly into Fortress, without requiring space to first create an archive.

Can I set up a shared space for my research group to share data?

Research groups are assigned a group data storage space within Fortress with each Data Depot group space. Faculty should request a Data Depot trial to create a shared Fortress space for their research group.

ITaP research resources are not intended to store data protected by Federal privacy and security laws (e.g., HIPAA, ITAR, classified, etc.). It is the responsibility of the faculty partner to ensure that no protected data is stored on the systems.

Please keep in mind that such spaces are, by design, accessible by others and should not be used to store private information such as grades, login credentials, or personal data. Contact us at rcac-help@purdue.edu to create a group space for your group.

How can I verify the contents of my archives while using HTAR?

You can ask HTAR to verify the contents of an archive during/after creation using the '-Hverify' switch. Please see the Fortress User Guide for details.

HSI/HTAR: put: Error -5 on transfer

First, check your firewall settings, and ensure that there are no firewall rules interfering with connecting to Fortress. For firewall configuration, please see "Do I need to do anything to my firewall to access Fortress?" If firewalls are not responsible:

Open the file named /etc/hosts on your workstation, especially if you run a Debian or Ubuntu Linux distribution. Look for a line like:

127.0.1.1  hostname.dept.purdue.edu hostname

Replace the IP address 127.0.1.1 with the real IP address for your system. If you don't know your IP address, you can find it with the command:

host `hostname --fqdn`

Can I share data with outside collaborators?

Yes! Globus allows convenient sharing of data with outside collaborators. Data can be shared with collaborators' personal computers or directly with many other computing resources at other institutions. See the Globus documentation on how to share data:

HSI/HTAR: Unable to authenticate user with remote gateway (error 2 or 9)

There could be a variety of such errors, with wordings along the lines of

Could not initialize keytab on remote server.
result = -2, errno = 2rver connection
*** hpssex_OpenConnection: Unable to authenticate user with remote gateway at 128.211.138.40.1217result = -2, errno = 9
Unable to setup communication to HPSS...
ERROR (main) unable to open remote gateway server connection
HTAR: HTAR FAILED

and

*** hpssex_OpenConnection: Unable to authenticate user with remote gateway at 128.211.138.40.1217result = -11000, errno = 9
Unable to setup communication to HPSS...
*** HSI: error opening logging
Error - authentication/initialization failed

The root cause for these errors is an expired or non-existent Kerberos keytab file (a special authentication token stored in your home directory). These keytabs are valid for 90 days and on most RCAC resources they are usually automatically checked and regenerated when you execute hsi or htar commands. However, if the keytab is invalid, or fails to generate, Fortress may be unable to authenticate you and you would see the above errors. This is especially common on those RCAC clusters that have their own dedicated home directories (such as Bell), or on standalone installations (such as if you downloaded and installed HSI and HTAR on your non-RCAC computer).

This is a temporary problem and a permanent system-wide solution is being developed. In the interim, the recommended workaround is to generate a new valid Kerberos keytab file in your main research computing home directory, and then copy it to your home directory on Fortress. The fortresskey command is used to generate the keytab and can be executed on another cluster or a dedicated data management host data.rcac.purdue.edu:

$ ssh myusername@data.rcac.purdue.edu fortresskey
$ scp -pr myusername@data.rcac.purdue.edu:~/.private $HOME

With a valid keytab in place, you should then be able to use hsi and htar commands to access Fortress from Fortress. Note that only one keytab can be valid at any given time (i.e. if you regenerated it, you may have to copy the new keytab to all systems that you intend to use hsi or htar from if they do not share the main research computing home directory).

Helpful?

Thanks for letting us know.

Please don’t include any personal information in your comment. Maximum character limit is 250.
Characters left: 250
Thanks for your feedback.